Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) prayed facing Baitul-Maqdis for sixteen or seventeen months but he loved to face the Ka`ba (at Mecca) so Allah revealed: “Verily, We have seen the turning of your face to the heaven!” (2:144) So the Prophet (ﷺ) faced the Ka`ba and the fools amongst the people namely “the Jews” said, “What has turned them from their Qibla (Baitul-Maqdis) which they formerly observed”” (Allah revealed): “Say: ‘To Allah belongs the East and the West. He guides whom he will to a straight path’.” (2:142) A man prayed with the Prophet (facing the Ka`ba) and went out. He saw some of the Ansar praying the `Asr prayer with their faces towards Baitul-Maqdis, he said, “I bear witness that I prayed with Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) facing the Ka`ba.” So all the people turned their faces towards the Ka`ba.
When the Prophet (ﷺ) entered the Ka`ba, he invoked Allah in each and every side of it and did not pray till he came out of it, and offered a two-rak`at prayer facing the Ka`ba and said, “This is the Qibla.”
Someone came to Ibn `Umar and said, “Here is Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) entering the Ka`ba.” Ibn `Umar said, “I went there but the Prophet (ﷺ) had come out of the Ka`ba and I found Bilal standing between its two doors. I asked Bilal, ‘Did the Prophet (ﷺ) pray in the Ka`ba?’ Bilal replied, ‘Yes, he prayed two rak`at between the two pillars which are to your left on entering the Ka`ba. Then Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) came out and offered a two-rak`at prayer facing the Ka`ba.’ ”
I asked Ibn `Umar, “Can a person who has performed the Tawaf around the Ka`ba for `Umra but has not performed the (Sa`i) Tawaf of Safa and Marwa, have a sexual relation with his wife?” Ibn `Umar replied “When the Prophet (ﷺ) reached Mecca he performed the Tawaf around the Ka`ba (circumambulated it seven times) and offered a two-rak`at prayer (at the place) behind the station (of Abraham) and then performed the Tawaf (Sa`i) of Safa and Marwa, and verily in Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) you have a good example.” Then we put the same question to Jabir bin `Abdullah and he too replied, “He should not go near his wife (for sexual relation) till he has finished the Tawaf of Safa and Marwa.”
The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “While defecating, neither face nor turn your back to the Qibla but face either east or west.” Abu Aiyub added. “When we arrived in Sham we came across some lavatories facing the Qibla; therefore we turned ourselves while using them and asked for Allah’s forgiveness.”
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.’ And if they say so, pray like our prayers, face our Qibla and slaughter as we slaughter, then their blood and property will be sacred to us and we will not interfere with them except legally and their reckoning will be with Allah.”
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever prays like us and faces our Qibla and eats our slaughtered animals is a Muslim and is under Allah’s and His Apostle’s protection. So do not betray Allah by betraying those who are in His protection.”
Ibn Buhaina, “When the Prophet (ﷺ) prayed, he used to separate his arms from his body so widely that the whiteness of his armpits was visible.”
Narrated Hudhaifa that he saw a person bowing and prostrating imperfectly. When he finished his Salat, Hudhaifa told him that he had not offered Salat. The subnarrator added, “I think that Hudhaifa also said:
Were you to die you would die on a “Sunna” (legal way) other than that of Muhammad (ﷺ).”
I helped the Prophet (ﷺ) in performing ablution and he passed his wet hands over his Khuffs and prayed.